2013.12 卷Ⅰ：闻名于世的丝绸之路是一系列连接东西方的路线。丝绸之路延伸 6,000 多公里。得名于古代中国的丝绸贸易。丝绸之 路上的贸易在中国、南亚、欧洲和中东文明发展中发挥了重要作用。正是通过丝绸之路，中国的造纸、火药、指南针、印刷 等四大发明才被引介到世界各地。同样，中国的丝绸、茶叶和瓷器（porcelain）也传遍全球。物质文化的交流是双向的。欧 洲也通过丝绸之路出口各种商品和植物，满足中国市场的需要。 The world-renowned Silk Road is a series of routes connecting the East and the West. It extended more than 6,000 kilometers. The Silk Road was named after ancient China’s silk trade which played an important role in the civilization development of China, South Asia, Europe and the Middle East. It was through the Silk Road that papermaking, gunpowder, compass and printing of the four great inventions of ancient China were introduced around the world. Similarly, Chinese silk, tea and porcelain spread all over the world. Europe also exported various goods and plants through the Silk Road to meet the needs of the Chinese market. 卷Ⅱ： 中国园林是经过三千多年演变而成的独具一格的园林景观。 它既包括为皇室成员享乐而建造的大型花园， 也包括学者、 商人和卸任的政府官员为摆脱嘈杂的外部世界而建造的私家花园。这些花园构成了一种意在表达人与自然之间应有的和谐关 系的微缩景观。典型的中国园林四周有围墙，园内有池塘、假山、树木、花草以及各种各样由蜿蜒的小路和走廊连接的建筑。 漫步在花园中，人们可以看到一系列精心设计的景观犹如山水画卷一般展现在面前。 After 3,000 years of evolvement, Chinese gardens have become a unique landscape. This includes both large gardens built as entertainment venues for royal family, and private gardens built as secluded retreats for scholars, merchants and retired government officials. These gardens have constituted a miniature that is designed in praise of the harmony between man and nature. A typical Chinese garden is surrounded by walls and consists of various buildings linked by winding trails and corridors, with ponds, rockeries, trees, and flowers scattered in it. Wandering in such a well-designed garden, people may feel that they are walking in a landscape painting. 卷Ⅲ：中国人自古以来就在中秋时节庆祝丰收，这与北美地区庆祝感恩节的习俗十分相似，过中秋节的习俗与唐代早期在中 国各地开始流行，中秋节在农历八月十五，是人们拜月的节日，这天夜晚皓月当空，人们合家团聚，共赏明月。2006 年，中 秋节被列为中国的文化遗产，2008 年又被定为公共假日，月饼被视为中秋节不可或缺的美食，人们将月饼作为礼物馈赠亲友 或在家庭聚会上享用。传统的月饼上带有“寿”(longevity)、“福”或“和”等字样。 Since ancient times, the Chinese people usually celebrate harvest in the Mid-Autumn, which is similar to the custom of celebrating Thanksgiving in the North America. The tradition of celebrating Mid-Autumn festival became popular throughout China in the early Tang dynasty. The lunar August 15 is a day for people worshiping the moon. On this day, under the dazzling bright moon, families reunite and enjoy the moon’s beauty. In 2006, Mid -Autumn festival was listed as one of China's cultural heritage, and in 2008, it was classified as a public holiday. Moon cakes, as indispensable delicious food of the festival, were gifts people sent to families and friends during the festival and usually eaten on family gatherings. There are characters of “longevity”, “good fortune” and “harmony” on the Traditi onal moon cakes.
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2014.06 卷Ⅰ：北京计划未来三年投资 7600 亿元治理污染，从减少 PM 2.5 排放入手。这一新公布的计划旨在减少四种主要污染源， 包括 500 万辆机动车的尾气排放、周边地区燃煤、来自北方的沙尘暴和本地的建筑灰尘，另外 850 亿元用于新建或升级城市 垃圾处理和污水处理设施，加上 300 亿元投资未来三年的植树造林。市政府还计划建造一批水循环利用工厂，并制止违章建 筑，以改善环境。另外，北京还将更严厉地处罚违反减排规定的行为。 Beijing is going to invest 760 billion yuan to curb environmental pollution in the next three years, starting from reducing the emissions of pm 2.5 emissions. The newly announced plan is intended to reduce the four major sources of pollution, including emissions of 5 million motor vehicles, coal-burning in surrounding areas, sandstorms from the north and construction dust in the locality. Another 85 billion yuan is used for establishing or upgrading the facilities of municipal waste treatment and sewage treatment. Besides, 30 billion yuan invests to the afforestation program in the next three years.In order to improve the environment, the municipal government also plans to build a good number of plants which can use recycled water and to stop illegal construction. In addition, Beijing will punish those people who violate the regulations of emission-reduction more severely. 卷Ⅱ：中文热词通常反映社会变化和文化，有些在外国媒体上愈来愈流行。例如，土豪和大妈都是老词，但已获取了新的意 义。土豪以前指欺压佃户和仆人的乡村地主，现在用于指花钱如流水或喜欢炫耀财富的人，也就是说，土豪有钱，但是没有 品位。大妈是对中年妇女的称呼，但是现在特指不就前金价大跌时大量购买黄金的中国妇女。土豪和大妈可能会被收入新版 的牛津（Oxford）英语词典，至今约有 120 中文加进了牛津英语词典，成了英语语言的一部分。 Chinese hot words are usually been regarded as a reflection of the social change and a reflection of some certain culture phenomena, some of which are quite popular in the foreign media. Tuhao and dama, for example, are both old words, but in nowadays, they have gained the new meanings. Tuhao was used to refer to Local tyrants or village landlords who oppressed tenants and servants before, but now, the word is used to refer the people who spend money like water or the people who like to show off their wealth. It means that Tuhaos are rich, but they have no taste. Dama is the appellation for middle-aged woman, but now it is used to describe the Chinese women who rushed to purchase gold when the gold priced plunged sharply not long ago. Tuhao and dama are likely to be included into the new edition of Oxford Dictionary. Up to now, about 120 Chinese words have been included into Oxford Dictionary, and these words have woven themselves into the texture of the English language. 卷Ⅲ：最近中国科学院出版了关于其最新科学发展与未来一年展望的年度系列报告。该报告包括三部分：科学发展报告，高 技术发展报告，中国可持续战略报告。第一份报告包含中国科学家的最新发现，诸如新粒子研究与 H7N9 病毒研究的突破。该 报告还突出强调了未来几年需要关注的问题。第二份报告公布了一些应用科学研究的热门领域，如 3D 打印和人造器官研究。 第三份报告呼吁加强顶层设计，以消除工业升级中的结构性障碍，并促进节能减排。 Recently Chinese Academy of Science published annual report on the latest scientific development and the expectations for the coming year in a series. The report is composed of three parts: scientific development report 、 high-tech development report and Chinese sustainable strategy report. Th e first report includes Chinese scientists’ recent discoveries, such as the breakthrough in the research field of new particle and H7N9 virus. It also emphasizes the issues we need to pay attention in the next years. The second report announces some hot areas in applied scientific study, like 3D printing and artificial organ.The third report appeals to strengthen the top-level design so as to eliminate structural obstacle in industrial upgrading and promote energy-saving and emission-reduction.
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2014 年 12 月 卷Ⅰ：反应在艺术和文学中的乡村生活理想是中国文明的重要特征。这在很大程度上归功于道家对自然的感情。传统中国画 有两个最受青睐的主题，一是家庭生活的各种幸福场景，画中往往有老人在下棋饮茶，男人在耕耘收割，妇女在织布缝衣， 小孩在户外玩耍。另一个则是乡村生活的种种乐趣，画有渔夫在湖上打渔，农夫在山上砍柴采药，或是书生坐在松树下吟诗 作画。这两个主题可以分别代表儒家和道家的生活理想。
The ideal of country life reflected by the art and literature is the important feature of Chinese culture, which is, to a large degree, attributed to the feelings to thenature from Taoist. There are two most popular topics in the traditionalChinese painting. One is the various scenes of happiness about family life, inwhich the old man often plays chess and drinks tea, with the man in theharvest, woman in weaving, children playing out of doors. The other scene is allkinds of pleasures about country life, in which the fisherman is fishing on thelake, with the farmer cutting wood and gathering herbs in the mountains and thescholar chanting poetry and painting pictures.sitting under the pine trees. The two themes can represent the life ideal ofConfucianism and Taoism. 卷Ⅱ：中国将努力确保到 2015 年就业者接受过平均 13.3 年的教育。如果这一目标得以实现，今后大部分进入劳动力市场的 人都需获得大学文凭。在未来几年，中国将着力增加职业学院的招生人数：除了关注高等教育外，还将寻找新的突破以确保 教育制度更加公平。中国正在努力最佳地利用教育资源，这样农村和欠发达地区将获得更多的支持。教育部还决定改善欠发 达地区学生的营养，并为外来务工人员的子女提供在城市接受教育的同等机会。 China will endeavor to ensure every employee to have average 13.3 years of education. If the goal is achieved, a majority of people entering the labor market will be having Bachelor’s degree.In the next few years, China will increase the number of people in vocational college. Except focusing on the higher education, the government will find a breakthrough point to ensure the justice of education. China is trying to optimize education resources and, accordingly, the countryside as well as the less developed areas will receive more support. In addition, the education ministry decides to improve the nutrition of students in less developed areas and provides equal opportunities for the children of workers from out of town to receive education in the city. 卷Ⅲ：自从 1978 年启动改革以来，中国已从计划经济转为以市场为基础的经济，经历了经济和社会的快速发展。平均 10%的 GDP 增长已使五亿多人脱贫。联合国的“千年（millennium）发展目标”在中国均已达到或即将达到。目前，中国的第十二 个五年规划强调发展服务业和解决环境及社会不平衡的问题。政府已设定目标减少污染，提高能源效率，改善得到教育和医 保的机会，并扩大社会保障。中国现在 7%的经济年增长目标表明政府是在重视生活质量而不是增长速度。 Since the reform in 1978, with the rapid development of economy and society, Chinese economy has transferred into market economy from command economy. The average 10% growth of GDP has lifted more than 500 million people out of poverty. The Millennium Goal of the U.N. has been fully or partially achieved throughout China. At present, the 12th Five-year Plan in China emphasizes the development of service industry and the solution of imbalance of environment and society. The government has set goals to reduce pollution, enhance energy efficiency, improve educational opportunities and medical insurance and expand social security. The 7% growth annual goal demonstrates that the government is concentrating on the quality of life rather than the speed of growth.
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2015.06 卷Ⅰ：2011 年是中国城市化（urbanization）进程中的历史性时刻，其城市人口首次超过农村人口。在未来 20 年里，预计 有 3.5 亿农村人口将移居城市。如此规模的城市发展对城市交通来说既是挑战，也是机遇。中国政府一直提倡“以人为本” 的发展理念，强调人们以公交而不是私家车出行。它还号召建设“资源节约和环境友好型”社会。有了这个明确的目标，中 国城市就可以更好地规划其发展，并把大量投资转向安全、清洁和经济型交通系统的发展上。 The 2011 is a historic moment in Chinese urbanization process, when the urban population surpassed the rural population for the first time. During the next 20 years, it is estimated that about 350 million rural population will move to cities. Such large-scale of urbanization is both a challenge and an opportunity to the urban traffic. The Chinese government has always been advocating “people-oriented” developing concept, emphasizing that people should travel by buses instead of by private cars. It also calls for the construction of “resource saving and environment friendly” society. With this expli cit goal, China can have a better-planned urbanization process, and therefore divert more investment to the development of safe, clean and economical transportation system. 卷Ⅱ：汉朝是中国历史上最重要的朝代之一， 汉朝统治期间有很多显著的成就。 它最先向其他文化敞开大门， 对外贸易兴旺。 汉朝开拓的丝绸之路通向了中西亚乃至罗马。各类艺术一派繁荣，涌现了很多文学历史哲学巨著公元 100 年中国第一部字典 编撰完成，收入 9000 个字，提供释义并列举不同的写法。期间科技方面也取得很大进步。发明纸张水中日晷(sundials)，以 及测量地震的仪器。汉朝经历了四百年，但统治者的腐败导致了它的灭亡。 The Han Dynasty is one of the most significant dynasties in the history of China and it attained lots of remarkable achievements during the reign. The Han Dynasty is the first in opening its door to other cultures, with the foreign trade prosperous. The Silk Road exploited in Han Dynasty lead to the central and west part of Asia, even Rome. The schools of art also present a state of flourish, springing up lots of monumental works in literature, history and philosophy. The first dictionary in China was compiled and finished in 100 A.D., which not only contains nine thousand Chinese characters, but also offers paraphrases and examples of different writing skills. Science and technology also made much progress during this period. People invented water clock, sundials and the instruments that can predict the earthquake. The Han Dynasty witnessed four hundred years and went to doom because of governors’ decadent. 卷Ⅲ：中国传统的待客之道要求饭菜丰富多样，让客人吃不完。中国宴席上典型的菜单包括开席的一套凉菜及其后的热菜， 例如肉类、鸡鸭、蔬菜等。大多数宴席上，全鱼被认为是必不可少的，除非已经上过各式海鲜。如今，中国人喜欢把西方特 色菜与传统中式菜肴融于一席，因此牛排上桌也不少见。沙拉也已流行起来，尽管传统上中国人一般不吃任何未经烹饪的菜 肴。宴席通常至少有一道汤，可以最先上或最后上桌。甜点和水果通常标志宴席的结束。 The traditional Chinese hospitality requires food diversity, so that guests will be full before eating up all the dishes. A typical Chinese banquet menu includes cold dishes served at the beginning, followed by hot dishes, such as meat, poultry, vegetables, etc. At most banquets, the whole fish is considered to be essential, unless various kinds of seafood have been served already. Today, Chinese people would like to combine Western specialties with traditional Chinese dishes. Therefore, it is not rare to see steak being served as well. Salad is gaining popularity, although traditionally the Chinese people generally do not eat any food without cooking. There is usually at least a bowl of soup, served at the beginning or in the end of the dinner party. Desserts and fruit usually mark the end of the feast.
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2015.12 卷Ⅰ：在帮助国际社会于 2030 年前消除极端贫困过程中，中国正扮演着越来越重要的角色。自 20 世纪 70 年代末实施改革开 放以来，中国已使多达四亿人摆脱了贫困。在未来五年中，中国将向其他发展中国家在减少贫困、发展教育、农业现代化、 环境保护和医疗保健等方面提供援助。中国在减少贫困方面取得了显著进步，并在促进经济增长方面作出了不懈努力，这将 鼓励其他贫困国家应对自身发展中的挑战。在寻求具有自身特色的发展道路时，这些国家可以借鉴中国的经验。 China is playing an increasingly important role in helping the international community in the process of eradicating extreme poverty by 2030.Since the implementation of reform and opening up in the late 1970s, China has helped as many as 400 million people out of poverty. In the next five years, China will provide assistance to other developing countries in poverty reduction, education development, agricultural modernization, environmental protection, health care and so on. China has made remarkable progress in poverty alleviation, and it has made unremitting efforts in promoting economic growth. This will encourage other poor countries to cope with their own development challenges. These countries can learn from China's experience in seeking the path of development with their own characteristics.During the process of helping the international community to eradicate extreme poverty before 2030, China is playing an increasingly crucial role.China has already rid as many as 400 million people of poverty since the implementation of reform and opening up in the late 1970s. In the next 5 years, China will provide other developing countries with assistance with respect to the poverty reduction, education development, agricultural modernization, environmental protection, health care and so on.China has achieved significant progress in terms of reducing poverty and made unremitting endeavor with respect to promoting economic growth, which will encourage other poor countries to cope with the challenges in the course of their own development. These nations can learn from the experience of China when seeking development roads with their own traits. 卷Ⅱ：最近，中国政府决定将其工业升级，中国现在涉足建造高速列车、远洋船舶、机器人，甚至飞机。不久前，中国获得 了在印度尼西亚（Indonesia）建造一条高铁的合同；中国还与马来西亚（Malaysia）签署了为其提供高速列车的合同。这证 明人们信赖中国造产品。中国造产品越来越受欢迎。中国为此付出了代价，但这确实有助于消除贫困，同时还为世界各地的 人们提供了就业机会。这是一件好事，值得称赞。下次你去商店时，可能想看一看你所购商品的出产国名。很有可能这件商 品是中国造的。 Recently, the Chinese government decided to upgrade its industry. China is now involved in the construction of high-speed trains, ocean-going vessels, robots, and even aircrafts. Not long ago, China obtained the contract for construction of a high-speed rail in Indonesia. It has also signed a contract with Malaysia to provide high-speed trains. This proves that people have faith in China-made products.China-made products are gaining popularity, for which China has paid a price. However, it does contribute to the eradication of poverty and also, in the meantime, provide employment opportunities for people around the world. This is a good deed which is commendable. You may want to take a look at the purchased goods for the name of the producing country next time you go to the store. Most probably the product is made in China. A decision has been made recently by Chinese government to upgrade its industrial structure , which now covers the manufacturing of high-speed trains, ocean-going vessels, robots and even airplanes. Not long ago, China won a contract to build a high-speed rail in Indonesia; another one was signed with Malaysia to provide the latter withhigh-speed trains, both proving that Chinese products have gained credibility and are enjoying increasing popularity all around the world.Cost being paid, Chinese industry dose contribute to eliminating domestic poverty and increasing job opportunities abroad, which deserves praise. The next time you go shopping, check the place of origin of your purchase , which is most probably from China.
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卷Ⅲ：在中国，父母总是竭力帮助孩子，甚至为孩子做重要决定，而不管孩子想要什么，因为他们相信这样做是为孩子好。 结果，孩子的成长和教育往往屈从于父母的意愿。如果父母决定为孩子报名参加一个课外班，以增加其被重点学校录取的机 会，他们会坚持自己的决定，即使孩子根本不感兴趣。然而在美国，父母可能会尊重孩子的意见，并在决策时更注重他们的 意见。中国父母十分重视教育或许值得称赞。然而，他们应该向美国父母学习在涉及教育时如何平衡父母与子女间的关系。 In China, parents are always trying to help their children. They even help make important decisions regardless of what their children want, because they believe that it is for the good of the children. As a result, the growth and education of the children tend to succumb to the wishes of their parents.If the parents decide to sign up extra-curricular classes for their children in order to increase their chances of being admitted to key schools, they would stick to their decisions, even if the children simply are not interested in them at all.However, in the United States, parents are likely to respect the views of the children, and pay more attention to their ideas in decision-making.It is probably commendable that Chinese parents attach great importance to education. However, when it comes to education, they should learn from American parents on how to balance the relationship between parents and children. Parents in China are always trying to help their children, even to make the most important decision for them, regardless of what the children really want, because parents believe it’s all for the benefit of their children. This has led to the result that the children’s growth and education tend to give way to their parents’wishes. Once the parents decide to sign up an afterschool class for their children in order to increase their chance of being admitted to a good school, they will stick on their decision, even their children have no interest in it at all.In America, however, parents tend to respect their children, especially when making decisions. Perhaps it is commendable that Chinese parents lay much importance on education, but Chinese parents still need to keep the balance between the parents and children in the perspective of education as the American parents do.
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2016.06 卷Ⅰ：深圳是中国广东省一座新开发的城市。在改革开放之前，深圳不过是一个小渔村。仅有三万多人。20 世纪 80 年代， 中国政府创立了深圳经济特区，作为实施社会主义市场经济的试验田。如今。，深圳人口已经超过 1,000 万，整个城市发生 巨大的变化。到 2014 年，深圳的经济实力而言，深圳居于中国顶尖城市之列。由于其独特的地位，深圳也是国内企业家创业 人均 GDP 已经达到 25,000 美元，相当于一些发达国家的水平。就综合的理想之地。 Shenzhen, a newly-developing country in Guangdong Province, China, was only a fishing village with about 30 000 population before the Reform and Opening up. In 1980s, Chinese government made Shenzhen the special economic zone as the experimental field of the market-oriented economy. Now, Shenzhen, with population of over 100 million, has witnessed its own radical changes.In 2014, the per-capita GDP of Shenzhen has been 25,000 dollars, the level of some developed countries in the world. As for the comprehensive power, Shenzhen has been ranked the top among Chinese cities. Shenzhen’s unique geographic position brings both domestic and overseas entrepreneurs an ideal place to start their career. 卷Ⅱ：旗袍(qipao)是一种雅致的中国服饰，源于中国的满族(Manzu Nationality)。在清代，旗袍是王室女性穿着的宽松长 袍。上世纪 20 年代，受西方服饰的影响，旗袍发生了一些变化。袖口(cuffs)变窄，袍身变短。这些变化使女性美得以展现。 如今，旗袍经常出现在世界级的时装秀上。中国女性出席重要社交聚会时，旗袍往往是她们的首选。很多中国新娘也会选择 旗袍作为结婚礼服。一些有影响的人士甚至建议将旗袍作为中国女性的民族服饰。 Qipao, as an exquisite Chinese clothing, originates from China's Manchu Nationality. In the Qing Dynasty , it was a loose robe specially for the royal women. In the 1920s, influenced by Western clothing, it embraced many changes, for example, narrower the cuffs and shorter the dress. These changes enabled Qipao to fully express women’s beauty. Nowadays, Qipao quite often appears on world-class fashion shows. It is usually the first choice for Chinese women as they attend social parties. Meanwhile, many Chinese brides will select it as their wedding dress. Some influential personalities even suggest making it as the national costume for Chinese women. 卷Ⅲ：中国的创新正以前所未有的速度蓬勃发展。为了在科学技术上尽快赶超世界发达国家，中国近年来大幅度增加了研究 开发资金。中国的大学和研究所正在积极开展创新研究。这些研究覆盖了从大数据到生物化学、从新能源到机器人等高科技 领域。它们还与各地的科技园合作，是创新成果商业化。与此同时，无论在产品还是商业模式上，中国企业家也在努力争做 创新的先锋，以适应国内外消费市场不断变化和增长的需求。 China's innovation is booming at an unprecedented speed. In order to catch up with the developed countries in the world in science and technology as soon as possible, China has increased dramatically in recent years. The research and development is extremely rapid. China's universities and research institutes are actively carrying out innovative researches. These studies cover from large data to biochemistry, new energy to the robot and other high-tech fields. They also work with the park, which is a innovation commercialization. At the same time, either in products or business models, Chinese entrepreneurs are also trying to be the pioneers of innovation, aiming at adapting to consumers’ market, which has constantly changing and growing demand both at home and abroad.
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2016.12 卷Ⅰ：杭州是浙江省的省会城市的政治、经济和文化中心。杭州历史悠久，是中国著名的七大古都之一。杭州也是著名的旅 游城市，被誉为人间天堂(paradise)，意大利旅行家马可?波罗(Macro Polo)曾称赞它为“世界上最美丽华贵之城”。位于市 中心的西湖景区以其秀丽的湖光山色和众多的历史遗迹闻名中外。杭州特产众多，其中以丝绸和茶叶最受欢迎。 Hangzhou, the capital city of Zhejiang Province, is the provincial center of politics, economy and culture. With a long history, Hangzhou is one of the famous seven ancient capitals in China. It is also a well-known tourist city hailed as "the paradise on earth". Italian traveler Macro Polo once admired Hangzhou as "the most splendid and luxury city in the world". Located in the center of the city, the West Lake scenic spot is world-famous for its beautiful lakes and mountains and many historical relics. Hangzhou boasts numerous special local products, among which silk and tea are the most popular. 卷Ⅱ：丽江古城位于云南省西北部，是纳西族聚居的地方。它建于宋代(the Song Dynasty) ，距今已有 800 年的历史，其原 貌得以保存完整。自古以来，古城就是远近闻名的集市。它是中国历史文化名城中唯一没有城墙的古城。古城里的建筑深受 纳西、白、藏(Tibetan)、汉四个民族建筑艺术的影响，充满了浓厚的中华文化气息。1997 年，丽江被列入世界文化遗产名 录(World Heritage Sites)。 Located in the northwest of Yunnan Province, the ancient town of Lijiang is home to the Naxiethnicminority. It was built 800 years ago in the Song Dynasty and its original look has been kept intact. It has been a very well-known market since the ancient times. Among all the famous histories and cultural cities and towns in China, it is the only one built without walls, The architecture of Lijing is deeply influenced by the arts of building of four nationalities, namely Naxi, Tibetan, and Han, and is of rich flavor of Chinese culture. In 1997, it was listed into the World Heritage. 卷Ⅲ：新中国成立后，中国政府一直致力于提高女性的社会地位。经过多年的努力女性群体在社会各个领域产生了不可忽视 的力量。近年来，越来越多的女性在政府部门任职，参与的国家政务活动也明显增多。据最近的一份调查数据显示，大约每 3 位企业中高层管理者中就有 1 位是女性。此外，女性在家庭决策中也扮演着越来越重要的角色。 After the founding of New China， the Chinese government has been devoted to improving the social status of females. After years of efforts, females have the power not to be ignored in every field of society. In recent years, a growing number of females take office in government departments, participating in more state affairs. According to statistics from a recent survey, about one in three of mid to high-level enterprise managers are female. In addition, females are also playing an increasingly important role in the family decision-making.
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2017.06 卷Ⅰ：明朝统治中国 276 年，被人们描绘成人类历史上治理有序、社会稳定的最伟大的时代之一。这一时期，手工业的发展 促进了市场经济和城市化。大量商品，包括酒和丝绸，都在市场销售。同时，还进口许多外国商品，如时钟和烟草。北京、 南京、扬州、苏州这样的大商业中心相继形成。也是在明代，由郑和率领的船队曾到印度洋进行了七次大规模探险航行。还 值得一提的是，中国文学的四大经典名著中有三部写于明代。 The Ming Dynasty, which reigned China for 276 years when the country was characterized by good governance and social stability, was depicted as one of the greatest periods of human history. During this period, the thriving handicrafts industry boosted the development of market economy and urbanization. Commodities, including alcohol and silk products, were available on the market in large quantities. At the same time, clocks and tobacco products, among many other foreign goods, were imported. Beijing, Nanjing, Yangzhou and Suzhou emerged as large commercial centers one after another. It was also during the reign of the Ming Dynasty that fleets headed by navigator Zheng He made seven large-scale, adventurous voyages to the Indian Ocean. What is also worth mentioning is that three of the Four Great Novels of China were written during this period. 卷Ⅱ：宋朝始于 960 年，一直延续到 1279 年。这一时期，中国经济大幅增长，成为世界上最先进的经济体。科学，技术，哲 学和数学蓬勃发展。宋代中国是世界历史上首先发行纸币的国家。宋朝还最早使用火药并发明了活字印刷。人口增长迅速， 越来越多的人住进城市，那里有热闹的娱乐场所。社会生活多种多样。人们聚集在一起观看和交易珍贵艺术品。宋朝的政府 体制在当时也是最先进的。政府官员均通过竞争性考试选拨任用。 During the Song Dynasty, which lasted from 960 till 1279, the economic boom made China the most developed country in the world. With the thriving economy came flourishing scenes of science, technology, philosophy and mathematics. China back then was the first country to issue paper money, use gunpowder and invent movable-type printing in the world. As population ballooned, more and more people moved to cities where there were dynamic entertainment venues. China during the Song Dynasty featured diverse social life. People gathered to appreciate and trade valuable art works. The Song D featured advanced administration, with officials selected through competitive examination. 卷Ⅲ：唐朝始于 618 年，终于 907 年，是中国历史上最灿烂的时期。经过近三百年的发展，唐代中国成为世界上最繁荣的强 国，其首都长安是当时世界上最大的都市。这一时期，经济发达、商业繁荣、社会秩序稳定，甚至边境也对外开放。随着城 市化和财富的增加，艺术和文学也繁荣起来。李白和杜甫是以作品简洁自然而著称的诗人。他们的诗歌打动了学者和普通人 的心。即使在今天，他们的许多诗歌仍广为儿童及成人阅读背诵。 The Tang Dynasty, which lasted from 618 through 907, was the most splendid period Of the Chinese history. The 300 years of rapid development during the Tang Dynasty turned China into the most prosperous country, with Chang’an, the then capital, becoming the largest metropolis in the world. China during this period was marked by economic boom, commercial prosperity and social stability. It even opened its borders to the outside world. As the country got more urbanized and wealthier, art and literature also flourished. Li Bai and Du Fu were poets recognized for their plain and simple works. Their poetry touched the hearts of scholars and commoners alike. Many of their poems are still widely read and recited by both children and adults today.
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卷Ⅰ：洞庭湖位于湖南省东北部，面积很大，但湖水很浅。洞庭湖是长江的蓄洪地，湖的大小很大程度上取决于季节变化。 湖北和湖南两省因其与湖的相对位置而得名：湖北意为“湖的北边”，而湖南则为“湖的南边”。洞庭湖作为龙舟赛的发源 地，在中国文化中享有盛名。据说龙舟赛始于洞庭湖东岸，为的是搜寻楚国爱国诗人屈原的遗体。龙舟赛与洞庭湖及周边的 美景，每年都吸引着成千上万来自全国和世界各地的游客。 Dongting Lake, situated in the northeastern Hunan Province, is large but shallow. Dongting Lake is a flood basin for Yangtze River. Hence the size of it depends on the season to a large extent. The provinces of Hubei and Hunan are named after their locations relative to the lake: Hubei means North of the Lake, while Hunan refers to South of the Lake. In Chinese culture, Dongting Lake enjoys a good reputation as the cradle of dragon boat racing. It is said that dragon boat racing began from the eastern shores of Dongting Lake as a search for the corpse of Qu Yuan, the Chu patriotic poet. Both Dragon boat racing and the beautiful scenery of Dongting Lake and the surrounding areas attract thousands of visitors at home and abroad each year. 卷 II： 青海湖位于海拔 3205 米、 青海省省会西宁以西约 100 公里处。 是中国最大的咸水湖， 面积 4317 平方公里， 最深处 25.5 米，有 23 条河注入湖中，其中大部分是季节性的。百分之八十的湖水源于五条主要河流。青海湖位于跨越亚洲的几条候鸟迁 徙路线的交叉处。许多鸟类把青海湖作为迁徙过程中的暂息地，湖的西侧是著名的“鸟岛”，吸引着来自世界各地的观鸟者。 每年夏天，游客们也来这里观看国际自行车比赛。 3,205 meters above (the) sea level, Qinghai Lake is located about 100 kilometers west of Xining, capital of Qinghai province in western China. Qinghai Lake, the largest saline lake in the country, has a surface area of 4,317 square kilometers with a maximum depth of 25.5 meters. Most of the 23 rivers and streams that empty into Qinghai Lake are seasonal. Five major streams provide 80% of the lake ’s total influx. Located at the crossroads of several bird migration routes across Asia, Qinghai Lake offers many species an intermediate stop during their migration. On the western side of the lake are the well-known “Bird Islands", which attract birdwatchers from across the globe. Every summer sees numerous visitors come here to watch the Qinghai Lake International Cycling Race. 卷Ⅲ：太湖是中国东部的一个淡水湖，占地面积 2250 平方公里，是中国第三大淡水湖，仅次于鄱阳和洞庭，太湖约有 90 个 岛屿，大小从几平方米到几平方公里不等。太湖以其独特的“太湖石”而闻名，太湖石常用于装饰中国传统园林。太湖也以 高产的捕鱼业而闻名。自上世纪 70 年代后期以来，捕捞鱼蟹对沿湖的居民来说极为重要，并对周边地区的经济作出了重大贡 献。太湖地区是中国陶瓷业基地之一。其中宜兴的陶瓷厂家生产举世闻名的宜兴紫砂壶。 With an area of 2,250 square kilometers, Lake Tai or Lake Taihu is the third largest freshwater lake after Poyang Lake and Dongting Lake. The lake in eastern China houses about 90 islands, ranging in size from a few square meters to several square kilometers. The lake is renowned for its unique limestone formations or "Taihu stones ”, which are often prized as a decorating material for traditional Chinese gardens/are employed to decorate traditional Chinese gardens. The lake is also known for its productive fishing industry. Since the late 1970s, harvesting fish and crabs has been invaluable to people living along the lake and has contributed significantly to the economy of the surrounding area. The lake is home to an extensive ceramics industry, including the Yixing pottery factory, which produces the world-renowned Yixing clay teapots.
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